Mustafa II: Ottoman Sultan from 1695 to 1703

Overview

From 1695 to 1703, Mustafa II was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. His resolve to reclaim lands lost following the failed effort to seize Vienna in 1683 prompted him to continue the fight against the Holy League. Early on, Mustafa's military campaigns were a success. In 1695 and 1696, he achieved successes against Austria after regaining the island of Chios from Venice. In 1696, the Russians conquered Azov. However, at Senta in 1697, he was beaten by the Austrians. The Carlowitz Treaty drastically curtailed Turkey's Balkan possessions. The Treaty of Constantinople reinforced Russia's victories. Internally, the ongoing fighting wreaked havoc on social and economic systems. Heavy taxes forced many farmers off the land, and the government's sole focus on Europe sparked local uprisings in eastern Anatolia and among Syria's and Iraq's Arab tribes. Mustafa, disillusioned by the setback at Senta, delegated most governmental concerns to the Muslim hierarchy's leader. He consumed the last years of his life hunting. On 22 August 1703, Mustafa was ousted by a military revolt.

Mustafa II

22nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Sovereignty

From 6 February 1695 to 22 August 1703

Ancestor

Ahmed II

Inheritor

Ahmed III

Born

6 February 1664

Died

29 December 1703 (aged 39)

Committal

Tomb of Turhan Sultan, New Mosque, Istanbul

Wives

  • Saliha Sultan
  • Şehsuvar Sultan
  • Alicenab Kadın
  • Afife Kadın
  • Ivaz Kadın
  • Bahtiyar Kadın
  • Şahin Kadın

Dynasty

Ottoman

Father

Mehmed IV

Mother

Gülnuş Sultan

Religion

Sunni Islam

Early Life

On 6 February 1664, he was born in Edirne Palace. Sultan Mehmed IV and Gülnuş Sultan were his parents. He was of Greek Cretan descent. Mustafa II abdicated in favor of his brother Ahmed III in 1703. Mustafa spent his childhood in Edirne. In 1669, he had his first instruction from Mehmed Efendi during the bed-i besinele ceremony at Mora Yenişehiri with his father. Hafiz Osman, a well-known calligrapher, was the writing instructor. His sisters Hatice Sultan and Fatma Sultan were married in 1675, and he and his brother Ahmed were circumcised. The festivities lasted for 20 days.

Sovereignty

Great Turkish Combat

The Great Turkish War was still raging during his rule. Following the defeat of the second Siege of Vienna, the Holy League seized huge swaths of the Empire's European territories. By 1690, the Habsburg soldiers had advanced as far as Ni before being forced back across the Danube. Sultan Mustafa II was desperate to reclaim Hungary's lost territory. Therefore he commanded his soldiers personally.

Seizure of Chios

After defeating the Venetian fleet twice in the Battle of the Oinousses Islands and the Battle of Chios, the Ottoman navy reclaimed the island of Chios. Mustafa II set off from Edirne in June 1695 on his first military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. Lipova had been conquered by September 1695. In the naval victory of Zeytinburnu on 18 September 1695, the Venetian Navy was defeated once more. The Habsburg army was beaten in the Battle of Lugos a few days later. Afterward, the Ottoman Army returned to the capital.

Meanwhile, the Ottoman citadel in Azov was successfully defended against the besieging Russian army. Mustafa's wishes were immediately realized, and the island of Chios was transported back in time. The Crimean Tatars Shahbaz Giray crossed into Poland and marched to Lemberg, returning with many prisoners and treasure. On the Herzegovina front in Peloponnese, there were reports that Ottoman forces persuaded the Venetians. The recovery of Chios, in particular, was seen as encouraging and was commemorated in Edirne with considerable pomp and circumstance. However, the natives were given the recommendations of the people.

Habsburg Combats

Mustafa II set off from Edirne in April 1696 on his second military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. The Russians besieged and seized Azov for the second time in August 1696. The Ottoman army defeated the Habsburg army in the Battle of Ulaş and the Battle of Cenei in August 1696. Following these successes, Ottoman forces conquered Timișoara, and Koca Cafer Pasha was named Belgrade's guardian. The soldiers then returned to Istanbul, the Ottoman capital. Mustafa II embarked on his third military campaign against the Habsburg Empire in June 1697. In the Battle of Zenta, the Ottoman Army was defeated, and Grand Vizier Elmas Mehmed Pasha was killed. Following it, the Ottomans and the Holy League forged a treaty. The loss of Hungary by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 was the most devastating event of his reign. Even if Ottoman dominance appeared to be waning on one side of the empire, this did not mean Ottoman expansion aspirations were abandoned. In 1700, the Grand Vizier Amcazade Hüseyin boasted to a rebellious tribe living in the swamps outside Baghdad to submit to the sultan's power because the sultan's rule stretched even to their marshy redoubts. Mustafa II wanted to restore the Sultanate's power at the end of his reign. Since Mehmed IV gave over his governmental responsibilities to the Grand Vizier in the middle of the 17th century, this office has become increasingly symbolic. Mustafa II's strategy was to establish an alternative power basis for himself by making the Ottoman cavalrymen known as timars, hereditary, and loyal to him. The timars had become an increasingly outmoded aspect of the Ottoman military system at this point.

Confession

The strategy failed. Disgruntled troops deployed to a Georgian operation revolted in the city. On 22 August 1703, Mustafa was ousted.

Character

Short neck, medium height, red beard, and majestic are characteristics. Levni created a miniature of Mustafa II. He became interested in hunting and amusement after 1699. He was interested in literature and used the alias to write poems. Archery was a fascination of this sultan, who had lines in the style of Celi, Nesih, and Sulus. Silahdar Findiklili Mehmed Agha was tasked with writing his period's history. In his novel Nusretname, he portrayed Mustafa's leadership.

Family

Wives

Sons

Daughters

  • Alicenab Kadın
  • Saliha Sultan
  • Şehsuvar Sultan
  • Afife Kadın
  • Bahtiyar Kadın
  • Ivaz Kadın
  • Şahin Kadın
  • Mahmud I
  • Şehzade Suleiman
  • Şehzade Mehmed
  • Osman III
  • Şehzade Hasan
  • Şehzade Hüseyn
  • Şehzade Selim
  • Şehzade Ahmed
  • Ayşe Sultan
  • Emine Sultan
  • Safiye Sultan
  • Rukiye Sultan
  • Hatice Sultan
  • Fatma Sultan
  • Ismihan Sultan
  • Ümmügülsüm Sultan
  • Zeyneb Sultan
  • Emetullah Sultan

Death

Mustafa and his princes were transported to Istanbul and imprisoned in the Kafes of the Topkap Palace. Mustafa spent four months in his cage. On 29 December 1703, he died of sadness or an unexplained cause. In the New Mosque, Istanbul, he was buried next to his grandmother.

Last updated: 2021-October-19
Tags: Ottoman Empire
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