Ahmed III: Ottoman Sultan from 1703 to 1730

Overview

Sultan Mehmed IV's son, Sultan Ahmed III, was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Gülnuş Sultan was his mother. His mother was an ethnic Greek named Evmenia Voria. He was born in the Dobruja town of Hacolu Pazarck. On his brother Mustafa II's abdication in 1703, he ascended to the throne. From 1718 to 1730, the government was led by Nevşehirli Damatbrahim Pasha and Fatma Sultan, the Sultan's daughter. The Tulip Era is the name given to this period. The initial days of Ahmed III's rule were spent trying to appease the janissaries, who were well-behaved. He was ineffective, however, against the janissaries who had made him Sultan. Çorlulu Ali Pasha was delivered before the Grand Vizier by Ahmed. He made an effort to assist him with administrative concerns. He devised new arrangements for the Sultan and the Treasury. He backed Ahmed in his fight against his foes.

Ahmed III

23rd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Sovereignty

From 22 August 1703 to 20 September 1730

Ancestor

Mustafa II

Inheritor

Mahmud I

Born

On 30 December 1673

Died

On 1 July 1736, at the age of 62 years old

Interment

Tomb of Turhan Sultan, Istanbul

Dynasty

Ottoman

Father

Mehmed IV

Mother

Gülnuş Sultan

Religion

Sunni Islam

Early Life and Edification

On 30 December 1673, Sultan Ahmed was born. Sultan Mehmed IV was his father, and Gülnuş Sultan was his mother. Evmenia was her first name. Hacıoğlupazarı was the place where he was born. On his return from Poland in 1673, Mehmed stayed there to hunt when Gülnuş was pregnant. He and his brother were circumcised in 1675. Hatice Sultan and Fatma Sultan were married to Musahip Mustafa Pasha and Kara Mustafa Pasha, respectively, during the same ceremony. The festivities lasted for 20 days. He was born and raised in the Edirne Palace. Following a courtly ritual known as bad-i basmala, he began his education on one of the court's sporadic travels to Istanbul. It was held in the Istavroz Palace on 9 August 1679. He received a conventional princely education at the imperial harem of Edirne, where he studied the Qur'an, hadiths, history, Islamic sciences principles, poetry, and music under the supervision of private teachers. Feyzullah Efendi, the chief mufti, was one of his tutors. Ahmed appeared to be curious and intelligent. The majority of his time was spent reading and practising calligraphy. His great grasp of history, poetry, Islamic theology, and philosophy is evident in his penned poems. He was extremely passionate about calligraphy. He had studied with some of the best court calligraphers, most notably Hafz Osman Efendi (died 1698). Hafz Osman Efendi had a huge influence on his work. Because of his elder brother's influence, he likewise practised it. Ahmed became acquainted with a bright office from the city of Nevşehir during his prince hood in Edirne. Ibrahim was his name. He rose to become one of his reign's most notable Grand Viziers. Following his father's deposition, he spent sixteen years in solitude in the palaces of Edirne and Istanbul. During this time, he concentrated on calligraphy and academic pursuits.

Sovereignty

Accord

The Edirne event took place in Edirne from 19 August to 23 August. On 22 August 1703, Mustafa was ousted, and his brother Ahmed ascended to the throne and declared his abdication. Bayezid Mosque hosted the first Friday salute. For a long time, Istanbul has been out of control. It was not a tranquil or secure setting. Arrests and executions were still going on. Theft and robbery were commonplace. On the Hasoda side, Fndkll Mehmed Aa greeted the new Sultan at the Harem gate. In 1705, he had the land law revised as part of the fief system restoration effort. Ahmed was awarded the title of 'law-giver for his support of these new rules. Ahmed selected four Grand Viziers in the first three years of his rule, one after the other. However, it was only until the appointment of Çorlulu Ali Pasha in May 1706 that the government became stable.

Russo-Turkish Combat

In light of Russia's hostile attitude, Ahmed III maintained good relations with France. After Sweden's defeat in the Battle of Poltava in 1709 at Peter I of Russia, he granted Charles XII of Sweden shelter in Ottoman territory. In 1710, Sultan Ahmed III was persuaded by Charles XII to launch the war on Russia. At the Battle of Prut, the Ottoman forces led by Baltacı Mehmet Pasha achieved a major victory. As a result, Russia handed over Azov to the Ottomans. They pledged to dismantle Taganrog's fortification and others in the area and refrain from interfering with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's affairs. Ahmed III came closer to breaking the dominance of his northern enemy than any other Ottoman ruler before or afterwards. During the Pruth River Campaign in 1711, his grand vizier Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha successfully encircled him. The Ottoman Empire was able to march to Moscow thanks to further Ottoman successes against Russia. This was put on hold when news arrived in Istanbul that the Safavids were attacking the Ottoman Empire. This produced a panic, and the Sultan's attention was diverted away from Russia.

Combats with Venice and Austria

Venice was declared at war on 9 December 1714. Through concerted army and marine efforts, the Ottomans were able to reclaim the entire Morea from Venice under the command of Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha. Austria was frightened by this accomplishment. Emperor Charles VI provoked the Porte into declaring war in April 1716. The peace of Passarovitz signed on 21 July 1718 ended the fruitless fight led by Silahdar Ali Pasha. Ahmed was extremely disappointed by his failure. Istanbul's economy suffered from high inflation and all of its associated miseries due to the harsh circumstances imposed by this pact. After Ahmed participated in the Morea campaign in 1715, Ibrahim Pasha became the Empire's second most powerful man. The following year, he was appointed as the city of Nish's minister of finance. This position assisted him in recognizing the state's financial crisis. He avoided conflict as much as possible during his vizierate due to his understanding of the delicate financial situation. Ahmed liked Ibrahim Pasha's peace strategy because he didn't want to conduct any military campaigns. In addition, he was hesitant to leave Istanbul because of his passion for art and culture.

The Character of Ahmed's Rule

A new warship was inaugurated in Tersane-i Amir while shooting competitions were organized in Okmeydan to raise troop and civilian morale. He alternated between three grand viziers. On 24 September 1704, he appointed Kalaylikoz Ahmed Pasha in place of Hasan Pasha, and on 25 December 1704, he appointed Baltac Mehmed Pasha. Ahmed III left the Ottoman Empire's finances in excellent shape, which had been achieved without the use of excessive taxation or extortion. He was a well-educated literary and artistic patron. In Istanbul, the first printing press authorized to utilize the Arabic or Turkish languages was established during his reign. Ibrahim Muteferrika was in charge of the operation. During this reign, the government of the Danubian Principalities underwent a significant transformation. The Porte had already assigned Hospodars to govern certain territories. Peter the Great found an ally in Moldavia, Prince Dimitrie Cantemir, during the Russian campaign of 1711. The Porte began openly deputizing Phanariote Greeks in that region, and after Prince Stefan Cantacuzino formed ties with Eugene of Savoy, the procedure was expanded to Wallachia. The Phanariotes were a form of Dhimmi aristocracy.

Relations with the Mughal Kingdom

Mughal Emperor Jahandar Shah sent gifts to Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III in 1712, referring to himself as the Ottoman Sultan's loyal lover. The Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar is also known to have sent a letter to the Ottomans. Still, this time it was received by the Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damad Ibrahim Pasha, who described the Mughal commander Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha's efforts against the Rajput and Maratha uprising in graphic detail.

Statement

Sultan Ahmed III had become unpopular due to his and his key commanders' excessive pomp and extravagant luxury. On 20 September 1730, a rebellious riot of seventeen Janissaries commanded by the Albanian Patrona Halil was assisted by people and the soldiers until it grew into an insurgency in front of which the Sultan was compelled to abdicate his throne. Ahmed voluntarily brought his nephew Mahmud I to the throne of the Empire and pledged his loyalty to him as Sultan. After six years of captivity, he retired to the Kafes previously occupied by Mahmud and died at Topkap Palace.

Architecture

Water claps, fountains, and park waterfalls were all erected by Ahmed III. Ahmed constructed three libraries, one of which was located within the Topkap Palace. Ahmed was a prodigy when it came to writing on plates. Some inscriptions and plates have survived. Many studies and publications have been conducted on Topkap Palace and its structures. Many distinct scope studies, as well as postgraduate theses, are found among these studies. However, there are still features of Topkapi Palace and its components that need to be examined and details that need to be considered. The library of Ahmed III is also among them. Ahmed erected a library to the right of the porch in front of the tomb in 1724–1725. The structure comprises alternate meshed stone-brick walls. It has a square shape and is topped with a flattened dome with an octagonal rim and pendants. Original pen works can be found in the library's pendants and dome.

Family

Wives

  • Emetullah Kadın
  • Rukiye Kadın
  • Mihrişah Kadın
  • Şermi Kadın
  • Ümmügülsüm Kadın
  • Hatice Kadın
  • Emine Muslihe Kadın
  • Hanife Kadın
  • Zeynep Kadın
  • Şahin Kadın
  • Hace Hanım Kadın

Sons

  • Şehzade Mehmed
  • Şehzade Isa
  • Şehzade Ali
  • Şehzade Selim
  • Şehzade Murad
  • Şehzade Abdülmelik
  • Şehzade Suleiman
  • Şehzade Mehmed
  • Şehzade Selim
  • Şehzade Mehmed
  • Sultan Mustafa III
  • Şehzade Selim
  • Şehzade Bayezid
  • Şehzade Abdullah
  • Şehzade Ibrahim
  • Şehzade Numan
  • Sultan Abdul Hamid I
  • Şehzade Seyfeddin

Daughters

  • Fatma Sultan
  • Hatice Sultan
  • Rukiye Sultan
  • Ümmügülsüm Sultan
  • Zeynep Sultan
  • Zeynep Sultan
  • Hatice Sultan
  • Atike Sultan
  • Rukiye Sultan
  • Zeynep Sultan
  • Zeynep Sultan
  • Saliha Sultan
  • Ayşe Sultan
  • Ümmüseleme Sultan
  • Hatice Sultan
  • Reyhane Sultan
  • Emetullah Sultan
  • Rukiye Sultan
  • Emetullah Sultan
  • Naile Sultan
  • Nazife Sultan
  • Esma Sultan
  • Sabiha Sultan
  • Rebia Sultan
  • Zübeyde Sultan
  • Ümmüseleme Sultan
  • Emine Sultan

Death

Following his deposition, Ahmed spent six years at the Topkapi Palace's Kafes. Unfortunately, he became ill there and died on 1 July 1736. He was interred in Turhan Sultan Mausoleum in New Mosque Istanbul in his grandmother's tomb.

Last updated: 2021-October-19
Tags: Ottoman Empire
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