Mahmud I (Hunchback): Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1730 to 1754


Mahmud I was also known as the Hunchback. From 1730 to 1754, he was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. After the Patrona Halil revolt, he ascended to the throne and maintained cordial relations with the Mughal and Safavid empires.

Mahmud I

24th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire


From 20 September 1730 to 13 December 1754


Ahmed III


Osman III


On 2 August 1696


On 13 December 1754, at the age of 58 years old


Tomb of Turhan Sultan, New Mosque, Istanbul


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Mustafa II


Saliha Sultan


Sunni Islam

Early Life

On 2 August 1696, he was born at Edirne Palace. Mustafa II and Saliha Sabkati Valide Sultan are his parents. Osman III's older brother was Mahmud I. He began to develop a humped back. Mustafa II, his father, spent most of his time at Edirne. Mahmud grew up in the city of Edirne. He began his education in Edirne on 18 May 1702. When his father abdicated the throne, he was taken to Istanbul and imprisoned in Kafes, where he spent the next 27 years of his life. He continued to write poetry, play chess, and deal with music during this time. There were risks, notably for the Kafes lives, in addition to childhood and youth.



Patrona Halil, together with a small group of fellow Janissaries, roused some of Constantinople's inhabitants who were hostile to Ahmed III's reforms on 28 September 1730. Halil led the crowd to the Topkap Palace, where he demanded the assassination of the grand vizier, Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha, and Ahmed III's abdication. Ahmed III gave in to the demands, had Ibrahim Pasha killed, and agreed to Mahmud, his nephew, becoming Sultan. Mahmud's real reign began on 25 November 1730, after this incident. First and foremost, Istanbul was placed under strict supervision. There were precautions taken. Approximately 2,000 suspects were apprehended; some were executed, while others were exiled.

Mahmud's Law

The mutineers and court officials both accepted Mahmud I as Sultan, although the empire remained in the hands of the insurgents for several weeks after his succession. Halil accompanied the new Sultan to the Eyüb Mosque, where the rite of girding Mahmud I with the Osman Sword was held. At the dictation of the daring rebel who had served in the ranks of the Janissaries and who appeared before the Sultan bare-legged and in his old costume of a common soldier, several of the major officials were removed, and successors are chosen. Yanaki, a Greek butcher, previously granted Halil credit and lent him money during the insurgency's three days. Halil expressed his thanks by persuading the Divan to appoint Yanaki as Moldavia's Hospodar. Yanaki, on the other hand, was never in control of this office. The Grand Vizier, the Mufti, and the Aga of the Janissaries received assistance from the Khan of Crimea in putting down the insurrection. Halil was strangled in the presence of the Sultan on 24 November 1731. Yanaki, a Greek friend, and 7,000 others who had backed him were also executed. The officers of the Janissaries were envious of Halil. Their willingness to assist in his demise aided Mahmud I's followers in ending the rebellion after it had lasted more than a year. Mahmud I's tenure was dominated by battles in Persia, with the Safavid dynasty crumbling and Nader Shah ascending. Mahmud also had to deal with a significant war in Europe. Mahmud I gave his viziers control of the government and spent much of his time writing poetry.


In January 1750, a fire broke out at the Ayazma gate and lasted 19 hours. Until Vefa, numerous shops, residences, and mansions were destroyed. On 9 January 1750, the Sultan fired Boynueri Abdullah Pasha and replaced him with Divitdar Mehmed Emin Pasha. On 31 March 1750, the second fire broke out. Bitpazan, Abacılar, Yalkclar, Yorganclar, and Haffaflar were all destroyed by fire. Fingerkapi and Tatlikuyu were also affected by the fire. The Sultan repaired the burned down and Ağakapısı with the help of the treasury.


Mahmud initiated the construction of the Cağaloğlu Bath I. In the spring of 1740, he established Yeni Hamam on the expansive grounds of Cağaloğlu Palace. On the remaining undeveloped property, foundation houses were built, and a neighbourhood was founded. With a ceremony, the beneficent Sultan opened the first of three libraries it established in Istanbul, in the courtyard of the Hagia Sophia Mosque, and produced four thousand books. One of the foundation criteria was that ten residents read the Sahih-i Buharf every day at the library. Mahmud also visited Hagia Sophia's Rosary Gate multiple times, sat in the library, and listened to tafsir commentary. The famine, which had begun due to the harsh winter, got increasingly severe by the end of May.

Relations with the Mughal Empire

Nader Shah's disastrous battle against the Mughal Empire left a hole in Persia's western borders. Sultan Mahmud I of the Ottoman Empire used it to his advantage. He was the one who started the Ottoman Persian War. The Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah worked closely with the Ottomans and their diplomat Haji Yusuf Agha during the battle. The two empires maintained close connections until Muhammad Shah died in 1748.

Relations with the Safavid Kingdom

In March 1741, Hac Han, the Iranian government's ambassador, arrived in Istanbul with three thousand people and his guards unit to keep the peace between them. Fabrics embroidered with jewels, ten elephants, and costly weaponry were among his offerings. In Fener Bahçesin, Hac Han was honored with a dinner. The elephants hauled by hand to Istanbul were also a concern, so large shakes were put on the barges, and wooden curtains were draped around them to keep the elephants from being startled. The strained relations between Iran and the Ottoman Empire reached a new level in February 1743, when Shah Safi, one of Shah Hussein's princes who was kept hostage on Chios Island, was sentenced and Nader Shah's failure to finish. The crest of a sailor, including the personality crown, was placed on dastar. With the men who joined him, he was transported to the Iranian border.



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Mahmud I was troubled by a fistula, and his health deteriorated day by day during the severe winter. Finally, on Friday, 13 December 1754, he went to the Friday prayer service. He returned to his palace after attending the prayer. Still, on the way, he slumped on his horse and died the same day and was buried at his great-grandmother Turhan Sultan Mausoleum in New Mosque, Eminönü, Istanbul, Turkey.

Last updated: 2021-October-19
Tags: Ottoman Empire
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