Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate

Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate

Overview

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey dissolved the Ottoman Sultanate on November 1, 1922, putting an end to the Ottoman Empire, which had existed since 1299. The authority of the Grand National Assembly wielded by the Government in Angora (now Ankara) over Turkey was acknowledged during the Lausanne Conference on November 11, 1922. On November 17, 1922, Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, left Constantinople (now Istanbul). The legal status was solidified with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne on July 24, 1923. The Caliphate was disbanded in March 1924, signaling the end of Ottoman rule.

Background

On November 11, 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in World War I. The Armistice of Mudros, signed on October 30, 1918, brought the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I to a close. On November 13, 1918, the British, French, and Italian armies occupied Constantinople. The Treaty of London (1915) set the stage for the division of the Ottoman Empire, which was followed by a series of agreements, most of which were unilateral among the Allies. Following the installation of military authority on the night of March 15, 1920, British forces began to occupy essential Empire buildings and arrest nationalists. The Ottoman parliament gathered on March 18, 1920, and submitted a complaint to the Allies, stating that the detention of five of its members was too harsh. That was the body's final meeting, and it signalled the end of the Ottoman political system. On April 11, 1920, Sultan Mehmed VI dissolved the Ottoman Empire's, General Assembly. The Sultan was left in charge of the Constantinople administration, which included the bureaucracy and the parliament. The division of the Empire was completed on August 10, 1920, when the Treaty of Sèvres was signed. Around 150 MPs were banished to Malta during the time, in waves. On 23 April 1920 the Grand State Assembly of Turkey was established in Ankara by the Turkish national movement led by Mustafa Kemal. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey fought the Turkish War of Independence. The conflict was fought against the monarchist administration of Constantinople. The Caliph was Sultan Mehmed VI. Without a parliament, the Constantinople administration organised the Kuva-Yi Inzibatiye, or "Army of the Caliphate," to fight the Grand National Assembly's Kuva-Yi Milliye.

During the Turkish War of Independence, there were conflicts in Bolu, Düzce, Hendek, and Adapazar─▒, as well as other revolts. The British armed the Caliphate army, which was favourable to the Caliphate. The Caliphate army and the British had a strategic aim of preventing the National Forces from pushing into the Bosporus straits. The Kuva-Yi Milliye beat the Caliphate's army. Although the Kuva-Yi Milliye is credited with being the first act of resistance in Turkey's independence, irregular warfare was eventually abandoned. Kuva-Yi Milliye embellished the seed of an organised Turkish army before the Greek war began. With the formation of a Republic, the Turkish Armed Forces became Turkish Armed Forces.

End of the Ottoman Empire

Osman I's dynasty, the Empire's founder and namesake, symbolised the Ottoman Empire's sovereignty. Since 1299, his family had reigned in an uninterrupted bloodline that spanned the Empire's existence. The Ottoman sultan ruled over the Ottoman Empire's polity with absolute authority. The Empire is the only and complete regent, head of state, and head of administration was the Sultan. The Sultan's pleasure was served by the grand viziers and polity created under the Ottoman Constitution. Both the governments of Constantinople and Ankara were invited to attend the Lausanne Conference by the Allies. However, only the Ankara administration will be represented at the meeting, according to Mustafa Kemal. The Sultanate's Constantinople administration was proclaimed no longer the legitimate representation by the Grand National Assembly in 1922. The Grand National Assembly also decided that Constantinople had not been the country's capital since the Allies occupied it. They also announced that the Sultanate would be dissolved. The Ottoman Empire came to an end when the Sultanate was abolished. Mehmed VI took shelter aboard the British cruiser Malaya in November after hearing the resolution. His government's surviving ministers recognised the new political realities. The Ottoman government or Sultan did not issue a formal declaration declaring the state capitulated; the system resolved itself. On November 11, 1922, the Lausanne Conference acknowledged the Grand National Assembly of Turkey as the successor to the Ottoman Empire. Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of Constantinople, left the city on November 17, 1922. A list of 600 names was given to the Lausanne Conference, all of whom were proclaimed personae non-gratae. The goal of the list, which is a Who's Who of the Ottoman Empire, was to eliminate the Ottoman governing class. The number was restricted to 150 after negotiations in Lausanne, and the treaty was signed on July 24, 1923. Since Murad I's rule in the fourteenth century, the Ottoman dynasty has symbolised the Ottoman Caliphate.

As Mehmed's cousin Abdülmecid II assumed the title of caliph, the head of the Ottoman dynasty retained control over all Muslims. In a post-Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman dynasty was left as Muhammad's political-religious successor and as the head of the Muslim community without boundaries. In 1916, the leader of the Arab Revolt, King Hussein bin Ali of Hejaz, disputed Abdülmecid II's title, denouncing Mehmet V. Still, his kingdom was destroyed and captured by Ibn Saud in 1925. During the Ottoman Empire's decline and modernisation (1828–1908), Greek, Bulgarian, and Serb subjects left or were killed, while Albanian and Armenian (Armenian national movement and the First Republic of Armenia) subjects left or were killed during the Ottoman Empire's defeat and dissolution (1908–1922). By 1922, the majority of Turkey's surviving population was Muslim, either Turkish or Kurdish. On October 29, 1923, Turkey's Grand National Assembly declared the country a republic. Following the establishment of the republic, there were members of the Ottoman monarchy in Turkey. The Republic of Turkey likewise produced and implemented an exile list on April 23, 1924 (updated on June 1, 1924) that comprised 120 members of the overthrown Ottoman monarchy.

Last updated: 2021-October-28
Tags: Ottoman Empire
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